Sefarad , a Biblical location. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is often used in a wider sense to include most Jews of Asian and African origin, who use a Sephardic style of liturgy. This article is mostly concerned with Sephardim in the narrower ethnic sense, rather than in this broader Modern Israeli Hebrew definition. The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach Hebrew language , “liturgical tradition” used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book. A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad, which is quite similar to Nusach Edot haMizrach liturgy of the Eastern Congregations. For more details of the Sephardic liturgy see Sephardic Judaism. Note that the term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim. The most prominent sub-group consists of the descendants of the Jews expelled from Spain in , who settled in various parts of the Ottoman Empire , in particular Salonica and Istanbul , and whose traditional language is Judaeo-Spanish , sometimes known as Judezmo or Ladino.
The American Sephardi Federation
Off limits pairs include relationships between mother and son, father and daughter, sister and brother, grandfather and granddaughter, grandmother and grandson, aunt and nephew. Though the verses see nothing out of place with a union between an uncle and his niece, American law does. Marrying a son-in-law or daughter-in-law is taboo, as well. Although ancient Jewish practice permitted a man to marry several wives, a woman could not marry several husbands.
Before the age of DNA testing, paternity doubts were a major concern.
Dating back to the Golden Age of Spain, the milieu of Sephardic Judaism always sought to embrace the wider world without losing its own uniqueness and traditions.
Additional Information In lieu of an abstract, here is a brief excerpt of the content: I was born three years later, making me a first-generation American. Despite being born and raised in America and educated in the mainstream Ashkenazi Jewish day school system, when asked about my Jewish affiliation, I never use the denominational titles common in American Judaism.
What was that Judaism like? In the home where I grew up, denominational terms such as Orthodox, Conservative, Reform, Ultra-Orthodox, or Secular Zionist were not a part of our vocabulary. My family observed and respected our traditions , including Shabbat, holidays, and synagogue life.
History of the Jews in the Dominican Republic
Spanish Citizenship for Sephardic Jews Subject: Important news re the Spanish and Portuguese Sephardic programs From: Aron Hasson Hi Aron, Please note that a few days ago the Instituto Cervantes and the Government of Spain agreed that applicants aged 70 or older are exempt from passing the DELE A-2 to prove the knowledge of the Spanish language applicable to applicants from non-Spanish speaking countries and the CCSE tests to prove the knowledge of basic constitutional values, social and cultural aspects of the Spanish life, applicable to all applicants.
This is important news as it will allow older generations from the Sephardic communities of the United States of America, Morocco and Turkey to file their applications without having to pass the tests of the Instituto Cervantes, a problem which had prevented many from going through the process of gaining the Spanish citizenship. Out of the 4, Sephardim, approximately 1, have signed up before a Notary and officially filed their applications. I am pleased to inform that Sephardim have already received their Spanish Passports, some of them from Israel, Peru, Colombia, Mexico and one child under 18 years old from the United States.
Today there are around 12, Sephardic Jews in Spain and 2, in Portugal  (although it must be taken account that, when expelled from Portugal, Jews were allowed to stay if they converted to Christianity, resulting in a big percentage being assimilated in the Portuguese population.
Things concerning Jews in Portland and everywhere that happen here and in Israel coming from an American-Israeli. Back in Recife, we find another synagogue that turns out to be the first known synagogue built in the New World in Spain expelled , Jews. They came to be known as Hidden Jews. From and again in Jews of Spain were forcibly converted to Christianity. In there were 12, Jews that were massacred by a mob in Toledo, Spain. Many moved next door to Portugal. They were able to be there a few years until the same thing happened to them.
They were forced to convert to Christianity but did so begrudgedly and kept their Judaism a secret. Moses Seixas was living in Recife with his family. The archaeologists declared that the skeleton they found during their work of digging a tunnel was Jewish and had been there since the 16th Century.
One more step
Jews lived and remain active in social and commercial life of the peninsula during the Visigoth and Muslim periods of occupation 5th -8th century C. Several important Jewish communities were already active when the kingdom of Portugal was founded in the 12th century. During the first dynasty, Jews enjoy relative protection from the crown.
Support: The Genetic Study of Sephardic Jewish Men is supported by the Avotaynu Foundation (New Haven, CT), the International Institute of Jewish Genealogy (Jerusalem), and the .
Sefarditas; sefardita or Catalan: Definition Narrow ethnic definition In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of in Portugal by order of King Manuel I.
Sephardic law and customs , Maghrebi Jews , Mizrahi Jews and Jewish ethnic divisions The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader , religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad. For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy.
The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach Hebrew language , “liturgical tradition” used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book. A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers. Sephardim traditionally pray using Minhag Sefarad. The term Nusach Sefard or Nusach Sfarad does not refer to the liturgy generally recited by Sephardim proper or even Sephardi in a broader sense, but rather to an alternative Eastern European liturgy used by many Hasidim who are in fact Ashkenazi.
Additionally, Ethiopian Jews , whose branch of practiced Judaism is known as Haymanot , have recently come under the umbrella of Israel’s already broad Sephardic Chief Rabbinate. Divisions The divisions among Sephardim and their descendants today is largely a result of the consequences of the Royal edicts of expulsion. Both the Spanish and Portuguese edicts ordered their respective Jewish residents to choose one of only three options: In the case of the Alhambra Decree of , the primary purpose was to eliminate their influence on Spain’s large converso population and ensure they did not revert to Judaism.
Over half of Spain’s Jews had converted as a result of the religious persecution and pogroms which occurred in , and as such were not subject to the Decree or to expulsion, yet remained under the watchful eye of the Spanish Inquisition.
Sephardic Jews: Wikis
The name comes from Sepharad Template: Sefarad , a Biblical location. More broadly, the term Sephardi has come to include Jews of Arabic and Persian backgrounds who have no historical connection to Iberia except their use of a Sephardic style of liturgy. For religious purposes, Jews of these communities are considered to be “Sephardim”, meaning not “Spanish Jews” but “Jews of the Spanish rite”.
The term Sephardi can also describe the nusach (Hebrew language, “liturgical tradition”) used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur (prayer book). A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers.
During the Exodus, the name was given to the Tribe of Judah , descended from the patriarch Judah. After the conquest and settlement of the land of Canaan , Judah also referred to the territory allocated to the tribe. After the splitting of the united Kingdom of Israel , the name was used for the southern kingdom of Judah. The kingdom now encompassed the tribes of Judah, Benjamin and Simeon , along with some of the cities of the Levites.
When the word makes its first appearance in writing in the book of Esther its meaning has already expanded to include converts to the Jewish religion as well as descendants of Israelites. More commonly the Talmud uses the term Bnei Yisrael, i. According to the Talmud then, there is no distinction between “religious Jews” and “secular Jews.
Development in European languages[ edit ] A page from Elia Levita ‘s Yiddish – Hebrew – Latin – German dictionary 16th century contains a list of nations, including an entry for Jew: The Latin term, following the Greek version, is Iudaeus, and from these sources the term passed to other European languages. The Old French giu, earlier juieu, had elided dropped the letter “d” from the Latin Iudaeus. The Old English name is derived from Old French.
The modern French term is “juif”. Most European languages have retained the letter “d” in the word for Jew.
Who’s Who and Who’s jew
Judaism WikiProject Judaism As a result of the Alhambra Decree and the Inquisition , many Sephardim Spanish and Portuguese Jews left the Iberian peninsula at the end of the 15th century and throughout the 16th century, in search of religious freedom. Some migrated to the newly independent Dutch provinces which welcomed the Sephardic Jews.
Many of the Jews who left for the Dutch provinces were crypto-Jews , persons who had converted to Catholicism but continued to practice Judaism in secret. After they had settled in the safety of the Netherlands , many of them ‘returned’ fully to practice of the Jewish religion. Many Jewish refugees came from Portugal , where Spanish Jews had fled after the Spanish Inquisition had been introduced in Spain in followed by the expulsion of the Jews from Spain in In , the Portuguese forcibly converted all Jews in Portugal, including many who had returned to Judaism after fleeing Spain and its Inquisition.
The Greek Jewish community consisted of two groups, the Sephardic Jews who were heirs of the Golden Age of Muslim Spain and Romaniot Jews, who were Hellenized and .
Apr 8, Benveniste family, Salonika Up until the Holocaust, Greece had a thriving Jewish community dating back to the time of the expulsion from ancient Israel. Salonika was known as the Jerusalem of the Balkans and had a Jewish majority in Ottoman times. During Ottoman rule, the Jews of Greece thrived and coexisted peacefully with their neighbors for the most part. Under Ottoman control, Jews would experience a golden age that rivaled Muslim Spain. The Greek Jewish community consisted of two groups, the Sephardic Jews who were heirs of the Golden Age of Muslim Spain and Romaniot Jews, who were Hellenized and lived in the area for over 2, years.
However, this rich and ancient Jewish community dating back to antiquity was wiped out during the Holocaust. According to the Kehila Kadosha Ioannina Synagogue and Museum, out of all of the countries occupied by the Nazis, Greece lost the largest percentage of its Jewish population. A larger percentage of Greek Jews were selected to die at the death camps than that of any of the other Jewish communities.
United with Israel
Definition[ edit ] Narrow ethnic definition[ edit ] In the narrower ethnic definition, a Sephardi Jew is a Jew descended from the Jews who lived in the Iberian Peninsula in the late 15th century, immediately prior to the issuance of the Alhambra Decree of by order of the Catholic Monarchs in Spain, and the decree of in Portugal by order of King Manuel I.
Sephardic law and customs , Maghrebi Jews , Mizrahi Jews , and Jewish ethnic divisions The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader , religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic considerations. In its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of Sepharad.
For religious purposes, and in modern Israel, “Sephardim” is most often used in this wider sense which encompasses most non-Ashkenazi Jews who are not ethnically Sephardi, but are in most instances of West Asian or North African origin, but who nonetheless commonly use a Sephardic style of liturgy, meaning a majority of Mizrahi Jews. The term Sephardi in the broad sense, thus describes the nusach Hebrew language , “liturgical tradition” used by Sephardi Jews in their Siddur prayer book.
A nusach is defined by a liturgical tradition’s choice of prayers, order of prayers, text of prayers and melodies used in the singing of prayers.
The modern Israeli Hebrew definition of Sephardi is a much broader, religious based, definition that generally excludes ethnic its most basic form, this broad religious definition of a Sephardi refers to any Jew, of any ethnic background, who follows the customs and traditions of .
The naturalisations were approved a day after Spain adopted its new citizenship law for descendants of Sephardic Jews, said Justice Minister Rafael Catala. It allows applicants to maintain their original citizenship so they can have dual nationality. Sephardic Jews were forced out of Spain during the Inquisition, while those who remained had to convert to Catholicism or risk being burnt at the stake Those granted citizenship Friday applied under an older law requiring them to relinquish home country nationality but can now have dual nationality.
Spain’s Federation of Jewish Communities praised the mass naturalizations, adding that most applicants were from Morocco, Turkey and Venezuela. The new law gives Sephardic Jews and their descendants three years to seek a Spanish passport, with the right to work and live in the nation European Union. The naturalisations closes a dark chapter of Spanish. A man in a kipa in the new synagogue at the Bukharian Sephardic Jewish Center Like others seeking Spanish citizenship, applicants must be tested in basic Spanish and pass a current events and culture test about Spain.
They also must establish a modern-day link to Spain, which can be as simple as donating to a Spanish charity or as expensive as buying property. The Spanish Jewish federation has received more than 5, requests for information about the Spanish law. No one knows how many people might be eligible, though some estimates run into the millions. Portugal adopted a similar citizenship path for Sephardic Jews to make amends for its decision giving Jews 10 months to convert or leave.
The Portuguese citizenship application process does not require applicants to take language or culture tests or prove a modern-day link to the country.
Sephardic Jews in the Netherlands
The Temple was destroyed. According to Josephus, some 1, , Jews perished during the revolt and another 97, were taken captive. This marked the first time that a disability was imposed on religious grounds. Anyone who tried to deny their Jewish origin was subjected to a humiliating examination especially under the reign of Domitian, brother of Titus.
Through the centuries, with emigration and assimilation, much of the island’s Sephardic Jewish culture diminished, though the Nidhe Israel Museum points out that many of the men who had escaped.
How do millions of Ashkenazi Jews react when, after hundreds of years, they finally get permission to eat kitniyot on Passover? This year marks the first time that many American Jews will learn to include these foods at their holiday table. My Ashkenazi friends, I have tasted your Passover foods of bitterness. I know you have suffered many years enslaved to a diet of matzo brei with cinnamon and sugar.
I am happy that more American Jews will soon be enjoying kitniyot on Passover. For one thing, that makes it more likely that a wider variety of Passover products will be available for my family in my local grocery store. But after reading the teshuvah, I also have some concerns. Part of my worry stems from the approach with which the Sephardic dietary laws are being adopted: Borrowing from the practices of your neighbors is natural; no religious tradition exists in a vacuum.
While the Conservative movement in Israel permits Ashkenazi Jews to eat kitniyot partly in order to facilitate positive relationships between Jews of different ethnic backgrounds, that line of argumentation is absent from the American teshuvah. The heritage of Sephardic Jews does not exist just to make the Passover practices of our Ashkenazi neighbors less burdensome and expensive, and more delicious and nutritious.
It requires examining at least 3, years of ancient human history using documents in vast quantities and variety written in at least ten near Eastern languages. As archaeological discovery relies upon researchers and scholars from diverse disciplines, the goal is to interpret all of the factual data, focusing on the most consistent theory.
In this case, it is complicated by long standing politics and religious and cultural prejudices. The ethnic stock to which Jews originally trace their ancestry was a confederation of Iron Age semitic-speaking tribes known as the Israelites that inhabited a part of Canaan during the tribal and monarchic periods. The Twelve Tribes are described as descending from the twelve sons of Jacob.
With rare papers dating to the late nineteenth century, photos from the early twentieth century, and mid-century home recordings of long-forgotten musical traditions, this archive arguably represents the single most significant repository of data on Los Angeles’ Sephardic past.
September Perspectives Newsletter When Devin Naar was in college, he envisioned a career as an attorney or artist. But a set of letters dating back to the late s led him in a different direction. The letters, written by a family friend, described the fate of relatives during the Holocaust. Mary Levin Naar taught himself to read Ladino in the traditional script, translated the letters, and was soon engrossed in the history of Sephardic Jews—particularly those from Salonica, Greece, like his own family.
Naar explains that while most Jews in the U. After being expelled from Spain in , they settled throughout the Mediterranean, including what was then the Ottoman Empire.